Advertisement

En Español: Fake historical narratives fuel MAGA ideology


Depiction of battle taken from the Cantigas de Santa Maria

Reemplazo, Reconquista y el poder de narrativas falsas

En 2017, los gritos de <> repitieron en las calles de Charlottesville. Tucker Carlson ha promovido más recientemente la teoría de la conspiración del Gran Reemplazo, que describe como <>. Y legisladores del Partido Republicano usan el lenguaje de reemplazo e invasión en otros contextos también, por ejemplo, en sus prohibiciones de atletas trans de participar en deportes de acuerdo a sus géneros para <>.

El miedo de reemplazo requiere que aceptamos las supuestas jerarquías naturales. Ejemplos incluyen la superioridad física de hombres sobre mujeres, la superioridad de la gente europea blanca sobre todo el mundo, cristiandad sobre otras religiones, etcétera. Es decir, los elementos claves que hacen fascistas de conservativas.

Así llego a mi tema: la Reconquista. O, con más precisión, como la narrativa común y simplificada oculta la realidad y provee un templado por intentados modernos de derecha a reescribir la historia.

Primer, unos contextos. En el año 711, musulmanes arabes y bereberes cruzaron el estrecho de Gibraltar, y con su líder Tariq ibn Ziyad, conquistaron la mayoría de la península ibérica, en ese momento el reino postromano y cristiano de Hispania visigótica. Fueron derrotados en 732 por los francos en la batalla de Poitiers, y su invasión se detuvo. Por siete siglos, los reinos cristianos de la península ibérica iniciaron una serie de guerras para expandir sus reinos. Estas guerras constituyen la Reconquista, pero los siglos intermedios han distorsionado la narrativa.

En 1492, ocurrió la rendición del reino de Granada, el último territorio islamico de la península ibérica. El mismo año, los reyes católicos Isabela I de Castillo y Fernando II de Aragón, no sólo autorizaron la inquisición sino también emitieron un edicto para conversar cada persona islámica o judía a cristiandad y expulsar el resto.

Con el paso del tiempo, estos hechos han provocado la narrativa falsa de que la Reconquista fuera una campaña deliberada y específica por la expulsión de la gente islámica de la península ibérica. La narrativa falsa de que la invasión por tropas islámicas en 711 reemplazó a la gente europea y cristiana en totalidad. La narrativa falsa de que sirve para justificar la creación de una etno-teocracia blanca y cristiana.

Por supuesto, estas narrativas falsas eliden mucho y crean la impresión de una relación puramente oposicionista entre los reinos cristianos y musulman, con diferencia de religión como motivo. En realidad, los reinos cristianos de España luchaban mucho contra los otros y se aliaban con líderes musulmanes también. El rey Alfonso VI de León y Castillo se casó con Zaida, la nuera de al-Mutamid, el rey de Sevilla, según fuentes de al-Andalús. Lar previa aristocracia visigótica ni se murió ni se expulsó, pero se integró en la nueva estructura de poder.

Brevemente, no era nada reemplazo. Sin embargo, Isabela y Fernando, como la derecha alternativa hoy en día podrían usar la idea para realizar sus metas políticas. Matices como estos se pierden cuando ideologues simplifican y distorsionan nuestra historia para fomentar y propagandizar el odio. Al fin, sus acciones resultan en una <> de algo que nunca fue perdido (y es probable que nunca existiera) y un la purga de enemigos. Esa es la fundación de MAGA, y por escolares medievalistas, es la razón por qué tenemos la responsabilidad de enseñar el entendimiento de la historia medieval tan auténtico y matizado en la medida de lo posible.

Replacement, Reconquista and the Power of False Narrative

In 2017, cries of “Jews will not replace us” echoed through the streets of Charlottesville, Virginia. More recently, Tucker Carlson has promoted the Great Replacement conspiracy theory, which in his words is “the replacement of legacy Americans with more obedient people from far away countries.” And Republican lawmakers use language of replacement and invasion in other contexts as well, such as banning transgender athletes from participating in sports according to their genders in order to “protect women.”

The fear of replacement rests on the acceptance of so-called “natural hierarchies” such as men being physically superior to women, the white European being superior to all others, Christianity over other religions, and so on. In other words, the key elements that make fascists out of conservatives.

This brings me to my subject: the Spanish Reconquista. Or rather, the way that the common, simplified narrative of the Reconquista covers up reality and serves as a template for modern attempts to rewrite history by the right wing.

First, though, some context. In the year 711, Arab and Berber Muslims crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, and under the leadership of Tariq ibn Ziyad, they conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula, then the post-Roman Christian kingdom of Visigothic Hispania. They were stopped from further invasion in 732 by the Franks at the Battle of Tours. Over the next seven centuries, the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula initiated a series of wars aimed at expanding their kingdoms. These wars constitute the Reconquista, but the narrative surrounding them has morphed over time.

In 1492, the kingdom of Granada fell, and with it, the last territory on the Iberian Peninsula ruled by Muslims. In that same year, Ferdinand and Isabella not only authorized the Inquisition, but issued an edict demanding all Jews or Muslims in their kingdom convert or be forcibly expelled.

This has, over time, led to the false narrative that the Reconquista was a deliberate, pointed military campaign specifically designed to remove Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula. The false narrative that the Muslim invasion of 711 involved the wholesale replacement of Christian Europeans by an invading force of others. The false narrative that the creation of a white, Christian ethnotheocracy was justified.

These false narratives elide much, of course, and paint a purely oppositional relationship between Christian and Islamic kingdoms during the period, motivated by religious difference. The Christian kingdoms of Spain often fought amongst themselves and forged strategic alliances with Muslim leaders. King Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile married Zaida, who was the daughter-in-law of al-Mutamid, the king of Seville, according to sources from al-Andalus. The previous Visigothic aristocracy was not killed or driven off, but integrated into the new power structure.

There was, in short, no replacement. But Ferdinand and Isabella, like the modern alt-right, could use the idea to achieve their political goals. Nuances like these are lost when ideologues simplify and distort history in order to promote and propagandize hate, and the end result is a “reconquest” of something that was never actually lost (and likely never existed) and a purge of enemies.

That is the foundation of MAGA, and for medievalists, this is why it is our responsibility to present as authentic and nuanced an understanding of medieval history as possible.

Spenser Santos is Little Village’s Spanish language editor. They earned their Ph.D. from the University of Iowa, focusing on medieval literature and translation practices.

This article was originally published in Little Village’s May 2022 issue.


[gravityform id="17" title="false" description="false" ajax="true"]
<div class='gf_browser_unknown gform_wrapper your-village-form_wrapper' id='gform_wrapper_17' ><a id='gf_17' class='gform_anchor' ></a><form method='post' enctype='multipart/form-data' target='gform_ajax_frame_17' id='gform_17' class='your-village-form' action='/en-espanol-fake-historical-narratives-fuel-maga-ideology/#gf_17'> <div class='gform_body'><ul id='gform_fields_17' class='gform_fields top_label form_sublabel_below description_below'><li id='field_17_7' class='gfield gfield_html gfield_html_formatted gfield_no_follows_desc field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><h3 style="font-weight:800; font-size:34px;">Let's get started</h3> <p style="font-size:18px;">Fill out this form and we'll contact you with information about marketing with Little Village!</p></li><li id='field_17_4' class='gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label gfield_label_before_complex' for='input_17_4_3' ></label><div class='ginput_complex ginput_container no_prefix has_first_name no_middle_name has_last_name no_suffix gf_name_has_2 ginput_container_name gfield_trigger_change' id='input_17_4'> <span id='input_17_4_3_container' class='name_first' > <input type='text' name='input_4.3' id='input_17_4_3' value='' aria-label='First name' tabindex='2' aria-invalid="false" placeholder='First name'/> <label for='input_17_4_3' >First</label> </span> <span id='input_17_4_6_container' class='name_last' > <input type='text' name='input_4.6' id='input_17_4_6' value='' aria-label='Last name' tabindex='4' aria-invalid="false" placeholder='Last name'/> <label for='input_17_4_6' >Last</label> </span> </div></li><li id='field_17_5' class='gfield gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_17_5' ><span class='gfield_required'>*</span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_5' id='input_17_5' type='text' value='' class='large' tabindex='6' placeholder='Company name' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false" /></div></li><li id='field_17_3' class='gfield gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible' ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_17_3' ><span class='gfield_required'>*</span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_email'> <input name='input_3' id='input_17_3' type='text' value='' class='large' tabindex='7' placeholder='Your email address' aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false"/> </div></li><li id='field_17_8' class='gfield gform_validation_container field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_' ><label class='gfield_label' for='input_17_8' >Phone</label><div class='ginput_container'><input name='input_8' id='input_17_8' type='text' value='' /></div><div class='gfield_description'>This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.</div></li> </ul></div> <div class='gform_footer top_label'> <input type='submit' id='gform_submit_button_17' class='gform_button button' value='SUBMIT' tabindex='8' onclick='if(window["gf_submitting_17"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_17"]=true; ' onkeypress='if( event.keyCode == 13 ){ if(window["gf_submitting_17"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_17"]=true; jQuery("#gform_17").trigger("submit",[true]); }' /> <input type='hidden' name='gform_ajax' value='form_id=17&amp;title=&amp;description=&amp;tabindex=1' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='is_submit_17' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_submit' value='17' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_unique_id' value='' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='state_17' value='WyJbXSIsIjlmNzc1YTEyZmZjNmYyODk5Mzk0NDM3ZjRlOGYyZDNmIl0=' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_target_page_number_17' id='gform_target_page_number_17' value='0' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_source_page_number_17' id='gform_source_page_number_17' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' name='gform_field_values' value='' /> </div> <p style="display: none !important;"><label>&#916;<textarea name="ak_hp_textarea" cols="45" rows="8" maxlength="100"></textarea></label><input type="hidden" id="ak_js_1" name="ak_js" value="107"/><script>document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() );</script></p></form> </div> <iframe style='display:none;width:0px;height:0px;' src='about:blank' name='gform_ajax_frame_17' id='gform_ajax_frame_17'>This iframe contains the logic required to handle Ajax powered Gravity Forms.</iframe> <script type='text/javascript'>jQuery(document).ready(function($){gformInitSpinner( 17, 'https://littlevillagemag.com/wp-content/plugins/gravityforms-asdf111aasdfffs-nope/images/spinner.gif' );jQuery('#gform_ajax_frame_17').load( function(){var contents = jQuery(this).contents().find('*').html();var is_postback = contents.indexOf('GF_AJAX_POSTBACK') >= 0;if(!is_postback){return;}var form_content = jQuery(this).contents().find('#gform_wrapper_17');var is_confirmation = jQuery(this).contents().find('#gform_confirmation_wrapper_17').length > 0;var is_redirect = contents.indexOf('gformRedirect(){') >= 0;var is_form = form_content.length > 0 && ! is_redirect && ! is_confirmation;if(is_form){jQuery('#gform_wrapper_17').html(form_content.html());if(form_content.hasClass('gform_validation_error')){jQuery('#gform_wrapper_17').addClass('gform_validation_error');} else {jQuery('#gform_wrapper_17').removeClass('gform_validation_error');}setTimeout( function() { /* delay the scroll by 50 milliseconds to fix a bug in chrome */ jQuery(document).scrollTop(jQuery('#gform_wrapper_17').offset().top); }, 50 );if(window['gformInitDatepicker']) {gformInitDatepicker();}if(window['gformInitPriceFields']) {gformInitPriceFields();}var current_page = jQuery('#gform_source_page_number_17').val();gformInitSpinner( 17, 'https://littlevillagemag.com/wp-content/plugins/gravityforms-asdf111aasdfffs-nope/images/spinner.gif' );jQuery(document).trigger('gform_page_loaded', [17, current_page]);window['gf_submitting_17'] = false;}else if(!is_redirect){var confirmation_content = jQuery(this).contents().find('.GF_AJAX_POSTBACK').html();if(!confirmation_content){confirmation_content = contents;}setTimeout(function(){jQuery('#gform_wrapper_17').replaceWith(confirmation_content);jQuery(document).scrollTop(jQuery('#gf_17').offset().top);jQuery(document).trigger('gform_confirmation_loaded', [17]);window['gf_submitting_17'] = false;}, 50);}else{jQuery('#gform_17').append(contents);if(window['gformRedirect']) {gformRedirect();}}jQuery(document).trigger('gform_post_render', [17, current_page]);} );} );</script><script type='text/javascript'> if(typeof gf_global == 'undefined') var gf_global = {"gf_currency_config":{"name":"U.S. Dollar","symbol_left":"$","symbol_right":"","symbol_padding":"","thousand_separator":",","decimal_separator":".","decimals":2},"base_url":"https:\/\/littlevillagemag.com\/wp-content\/plugins\/gravityforms-asdf111aasdfffs-nope","number_formats":[],"spinnerUrl":"https:\/\/littlevillagemag.com\/wp-content\/plugins\/gravityforms-asdf111aasdfffs-nope\/images\/spinner.gif"};jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_render', function(event, formId, currentPage){if(formId == 17) {if(typeof Placeholders != 'undefined'){ Placeholders.enable(); }} } );jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_conditional_logic', function(event, formId, fields, isInit){} );</script><script type='text/javascript'> jQuery(document).ready(function(){jQuery(document).trigger('gform_post_render', [17, 1]) } ); </script>